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115 result(s) for "Foster, Kenneth J"
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Gordon's approach to music learning in middle school: A modified Delphi study
Since the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act, the value of music education has been questioned. When there are more demands than money to meet those demands, administrators are forced to make choices. Music education is considered for elimination from the curriculum because it is often deemed nonessential. The benefits received from music education are well documented and can be grouped into four categories: success in society, success in school, success in developing intelligence, and success in life. Gordon's musical learning theory offers a means to differentiate or adapt music instruction to respond to diverse student needs; however, there is little or no consensus on how best to take Gordon's theory to practice. This qualitative study, using a modified Delphi approach, evaluated the consensus of music professionals and middle school music teachers familiar with Gordon's music learning theory to determine how best to engage students in music education in middle school. A pilot study consisting of a panel of 6 experts drawn from the 30 identified for the final study in Gordon's music learning theory expressed the need for training and ongoing professional development to design the tools necessary for effective participation in the middle school music classroom. This study makes a significant contribution to social change by offering practical suggestions on how Gordon's music learning theory could be utilized in middle school music classrooms to meet the diversity that typifies the middle school years, and the music experience of the teachers. If all students are given the opportunity to increase their personal understanding of music through music education utilizing Gordon's music learning curriculum, they may develop a feeling of self-accomplishment and be better prepared for further personal development.
Directional changes in the species composition of a tropical forest
Long-term studies have revealed that the structure and dynamics of many tropical forests are changing, but the causes and consequences of these changes remain debated. To learn more about the forces driving changes within tropical forests, we investigated shifts in tree species composition over the past 25 years within the 50-ha Forest Dynamics Plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, and examined how observed patterns relate to predictions of (1) random population fluctuations, (2) carbon fertilization, (3) succession from past disturbance, (4) recovery from an extreme El Niñño drought at the start of the study period, and (5) long-term climate change. We found that there have been consistent and directional changes in the tree species composition. These shifts have led to increased relative representations of drought-tolerant species as determined by the species' occurrence both across a gradient of soil moisture within BCI and across a wider precipitation gradient from a dry forest near the Pacific coast of Panama to a wet forest near its Caribbean coast. These nonrandom changes cannot be explained by stochastic fluctuations or carbon fertilization. They may be the legacy of the El Niñño drought, or alternatively, potentially reflect increased aridity due to long-term climate change. By investigating compositional changes, we increased not only our understanding of the ecology of tropical forests and their responses to large-scale disturbances, but also our ability to predict how future global change will impact some of the critical services provided by these important ecosystems.
Interventions for increasing colorectal cancer screening uptake among African-American men: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Background African-American men have the lowest 5-year survival rate in the U.S. for colorectal cancer (CRC) of any racial group, which may partly stem from low screening adherence. It is imperative to synthesize the literature evaluating the effectiveness of interventions on CRC screening uptake in this population. Materials and methods In this systematic review and meta-analysis, Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched for U.S.-based interventions that: were published after 1998-January 2020; included African-American men; and evaluated CRC screening uptake explicitly. Checklist by Cochrane Collaboration and Joanna Brigg were utilized to assess risk of bias, and meta-regression and sensitivity analyses were employed to identify the most effective interventions. Results Our final sample comprised 41 studies with 2 focused exclusively on African-American men. The most frequently adopted interventions were educational materials (39%), stool-based screening kits (14%), and patient navigation (11%). Most randomized controlled trials failed to provide details about the blinding of the participant recruitment method, allocation concealment method, and/or the outcome assessment. Due to high heterogeneity, meta-analysis was conducted among 17 eligible studies. Interventions utilizing stool-based kits or patient navigation were most effective at increasing CRC screening completion, with odds ratios of 9.60 (95% CI 2.89-31.82, p = 0.0002) and 2.84 (95% CI 1.23-6.49, p = 0.01). No evidence of publication bias was present for this study registered with the International Prospective Registry of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO 2019 CRD42019119510). Conclusions Additional research is warranted to uncover effective, affordable interventions focused on increasing CRC screening completion among African-American men. When designing and implementing future multicomponent interventions, employing 4 or fewer interventions types may reduce bias risk. Since only 5% of the interventions solely focused on African-American men, future theory-driven interventions should consider recruiting samples comprised solely of this population.
A minimal common outcome measure set for COVID-19 clinical research
Clinical research is necessary for an effective response to an emerging infectious disease outbreak. However, research efforts are often hastily organised and done using various research tools, with the result that pooling data across studies is challenging. In response to the needs of the rapidly evolving COVID-19 outbreak, the Clinical Characterisation and Management Working Group of the WHO Research and Development Blueprint programme, the International Forum for Acute Care Trialists, and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infections Consortium have developed a minimum set of common outcome measures for studies of COVID-19. This set includes three elements: a measure of viral burden (quantitative PCR or cycle threshold), a measure of patient survival (mortality at hospital discharge or at 60 days), and a measure of patient progression through the health-care system by use of the WHO Clinical Progression Scale, which reflects patient trajectory and resource use over the course of clinical illness. We urge investigators to include these key data elements in ongoing and future studies to expedite the pooling of data during this immediate threat, and to hone a tool for future needs.
Using GOES-R ABI Full-Disk Reflectance as a Calibration Source for the GOES Imager Visible Channels
The availability of onboard calibration for solar reflectance channels on recently launched advanced geostationary imagers provides an opportunity to revisit the calibration of the visible channels on past geostationary imagers, which lacked onboard calibration systems. This study used the data from the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on GOES-16 and GOES-17 to calibrate the visible channels on the GOES-IP (GOES-8, -9, -10, -11, -12, -13, and -15) sensors (1994–2021). The visible channels are dominant sources of information for many of the essential climate variables from these sensors. The technique developed uses the stability of the integrated full-disk reflectance to define a calibration target that is applied to past sensors to generate new calibration equations. These equations are found to be stable and agree well with other established techniques. Given the lack of assumptions and ease of application, this technique offers a new calibration method that can be used to complement existing techniques used by the operational space agencies with the GSICS Project. In addition, its simplicity allows for its application to data that existed prior to many of the reference data employed in current calibration methods.
Belimumab in kidney transplantation: an experimental medicine, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial
B cells produce alloantibodies and activate alloreactive T cells, negatively affecting kidney transplant survival. By contrast, regulatory B cells are associated with transplant tolerance. Immunotherapies are needed that inhibit B-cell effector function, including antibody secretion, while sparing regulators and minimising infection risk. B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is a cytokine that promotes B-cell activation and has not previously been targeted in kidney transplant recipients. We aimed to determine the safety and activity of an anti-BLyS antibody, belimumab, in addition to standard-of-care immunosuppression in adult kidney transplant recipients. We used an experimental medicine study design with multiple secondary and exploratory endpoints to gain further insight into the effect of belimumab on the generation of de-novo IgG and on the regulatory B-cell compartment. We undertook a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial of belimumab, in addition to standard-of-care immunosuppression (basiliximab, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and prednisolone) at two centres, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK, and Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK. Participants were eligible if they were aged 18–75 years and receiving a kidney transplant and were planned to receive standard-of-care immunosuppression. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either intravenous belimumab 10 mg per kg bodyweight or placebo, given at day 0, 14, and 28, and then every 4 weeks for a total of seven infusions. The co-primary endpoints were safety and change in the concentration of naive B cells from baseline to week 24, both of which were analysed in all patients who received a transplant and at least one dose of drug or placebo (the modified intention-to-treat [mITT] population). This trial has been completed and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01536379, and EudraCT, 2011–006215–56. Between Sept 13, 2013, and Feb 8, 2015, of 303 patients assessed for eligibility, 28 kidney transplant recipients were randomly assigned to receive belimumab (n=14) or placebo (n=14). 25 patients (12 [86%] patients assigned to the belimumab group and 13 [93%] patients assigned to the placebo group) received a transplant and were included in the mITT population. We observed similar proportions of adverse events in the belimumab and placebo groups, including serious infections (one [8%] of 12 in the belimumab group and five [38%] of 13 in the placebo group during the 6-month on-treatment phase; and none in the belimumab group and two [15%] in the placebo group during the 6-month follow-up). In the on-treatment phase, one patient in the placebo group died because of fatal myocardial infarction and acute cardiac failure. The co-primary endpoint of a reduction in naive B cells from baseline to week 24 was not met. Treatment with belimumab did not significantly reduce the number of naive B cells from baseline to week 24 (adjusted mean difference between the belimumab and placebo treatment groups −34·4 cells per μL, 95% CI −109·5 to 40·7). Belimumab might be a useful adjunct to standard-of-care immunosuppression in renal transplantation, with no major increased risk of infection and potential beneficial effects on humoral alloimmunity. GlaxoSmithKline.
Within-Site Variation in Feather Stable Hydrogen Isotope (δ2Hf) Values of Boreal Songbirds: Implications for Assignment to Molt Origin
Understanding bird migration and dispersal is important to inform full life-cycle conservation planning. Stable hydrogen isotope ratios from feathers (δ2Hf) can be linked to amount-weighted long-term, growing season precipitation δ2H (δ2Hp) surfaces to create δ2Hf isoscapes for assignment to molt origin. However, transfer functions linking δ2Hp with δ2Hf are influenced by physiological and environmental processes. A better understanding of the causes and consequences of variation in δ2Hf values among individuals and species will improve the predictive ability of geographic assignment tests. We tested for effects of species, land cover, forage substrate, nest substrate, diet composition, body mass, sex, and phylogenetic relatedness on δ2Hf from individuals at least two years old of 21 songbird species captured during the same breeding season at a site in northeastern Alberta, Canada. For four species, we also tested for a year × species interaction effect on δ2Hf. A model including species as single predictor received the most support (AIC weight = 0.74) in explaining variation in δ2Hf. A species-specific variance parameter was part of all best-ranked models, suggesting variation in δ2Hf was not consistent among species. The second best-ranked model included a forage substrate × diet interaction term (AIC weight = 0.16). There was a significant year × species interaction effect on δ2Hf suggesting that interspecific differences in δ2Hf can differ among years. Our results suggest that within- and among-year interspecific variation in δ2Hf is the most important source of variance typically not being explicitly quantified in geographic assignment tests using non-specific transfer functions to convert δ2Hp into δ2Hf. However, this source of variation is consistent with the range of variation from the transfer functions most commonly being propagated in assignment tests of geographic origins for passerines breeding in North America.